Chronic diseases are defined broadly as conditions that last 1 year or more and require ongoing medical attention or limit activities of daily living or both 
Of the top 10 causes of premature deaths (measured in YLL*, see Table below) in Malaysia, 6 are caused by chronic diseases, in the following order: Heart & circulatory diseases, Cancers, Lung diseases, Diabetes, Kidney and Liver disease .
|Rank||Disease||# YLLs* in 1000s||YLLs in % of total|
|1||Heart & circulatory diseases(Ischaemic heart disease, Stroke, Other cardio & circulatory)||887||24.1|
|2.||Infections (Dengue, HIV/AIDS, Typhoid fevers, Tuberculosis, LRTI)||597||16.2|
|3.||Injuries (Road injury, Other transport injuries, Drowning, Falls, Interpersonal violence)||427||11.7|
|4.||Cancers (Lung, Breast, Colorectal, Liver cancers and Leukemia)||248||6.8|
|5.||Neonatal & childhood conditions (Congenital anomalies, Preterm birth, Neonatal encephalopathy)||166||4.5|
|6.||Lung diseases, COPD & Asthma||134||3.6|
|8.||Kidney diseases, mostly Chronic kidney disease||62||1.7|
|9.||Liver diseases, mostly Cirrhosis||42||1.1|
The vast majority of adult Malaysians will have one or more of these chronic diseases or the risk factors associated with them (obesity, physical inactivity, hypertension, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, tobacco & alcohol use,) [3-21]. And worst, most people with these conditions or risk factors will not be aware they have them, and even among those who knew, few are properly treated [3,4,5,12,22].
Health Malaysia’s mission is to help empower local communities to screen and treat these chronic diseases and their risk factors, by harnessing advances in point-of-care diagnostic and digital health technologies, which have now made large-scale community-based screening possible
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, US. National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion https://www.cdc.gov/chronicdisease/about/index.htm
- The Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation (IHME) http://www.healthdata.org/results/country-profiles
- [Lipid] Halizah MR, et al Hypercholesterolemia Prevalence, Awareness, Treatment and Control Among Adults in Malaysia: The 2015 National Health and Morbidity Survey, Malaysia. Global Journal of Health Science 2018; 10; 11-23
- [FH] Shi, Z. et al. Familial hypercholesterolemia in China: prevalence and evidence of under-detection and under-treatment in a community population. Intl J. Cardiol. 174, 834–836 (2014)
- [HT] Ab Majid, et al. Prevalence, Awareness, Treatment and Control of hypertension in the Malaysian population: findings from the National Health and Morbidity Survey 2006–2015. J Hum Hypertens 32, 617–624 (2018).
- [DM] 2. Letchuman GR, Wan Nazaimoon WM, Wan Mohamad WB, et al. Prevalence of diabetes in the Malaysian National Health Morbidity Survey III 2006. Med J Malaysia 2010;65:180e6.
- [Obesity] Mohamad Nor, N., Ambak, R., Mohd Zaki, N. et al. An update on obesity research pattern among adults in Malaysia: a scoping review. BMC Women's Health 18, 114 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12905-018-0590-4
- [Abdo obesity] Mohamud WN, Ismail AA, Sharifuddin A, et al. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its risk factors in adult Malaysians: results of a nationwide survey. Diabetes Res ClinPract 2012;96:91e7.
- [Abdo obesity] Zaki M, Robaayah Z, Chan SP, et al. Malaysia Shape of the Nation (MySoN): a primary care based study of abdominal obesity in Malaysia. Med J Malaysia 2010;65: 143e9.
- [NAFLD] Goh SC, Ho ELM, Goh KL. Prevalence and risk factors of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in a multiracial suburban Asian population in Malaysia. HepatolInt 2012;7:548–554
- [HBV] mLim ZZ, Teo JS, Tan AC, Lim TO. Prevalence of Chronic Hepatitis B and C in Malaysia- results from a community-based screening campaign. Preprint at medRxivhttps://medrxiv.org/cgi/content/short/2020.04.30.20085944v1 (2020).
- [HBV] Lim ZZ, et al. Cascade of care, awareness and treatment of Chronic Hepatitis B in Malaysia- findings from a community based screening campaign. Preprint at medRxivhttps://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.06.15.20131409v1 (2020)
- [CKD] Hooi LS, Ong LM, Ahmad G, et al. A population-based study measuring the prevalence of chronic kidney disease among adults in West Malaysia. Kidney Int. 2013;84:1034–40
- [CKD] Saminathan, T.A., Hooi, L.S., Mohd Yusoff, M. et al. Prevalence of chronic kidney disease and its associated factors in Malaysia; findings from a nationwide population-based cross-sectional study. BMC Nephrol 21, 344 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12882-020-01966-8
- [Eye] Bourne RRA, et al. Magnitude, temporal trends, and projections of the global prevalence of blindness and vision impairment: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet Glob Health 2017; published online Aug 2.
- [Eye] Source: Flaxman SR, et al. Vision Loss Expert Group of the Global Burden of Disease Study. Global causes of blindness and distance vision impairment 1990–2020: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet Glob Health. 2017;5:e1221-e1234
- [Carotid] Song P, Fang Z, Wang H, et al. Global and regional prevalence, burden, and risk factors for carotid atherosclerosis: a systematic review, meta-analysis, and modelling study. Lancet Glob Health 2020; 8: e721–29.
- [Carotid] Song P Xia W Zhu Y et al. Prevalence of carotid atherosclerosis and carotid plaque in Chinese adults: a systematic review and meta-regression analysis. Atherosclerosis. 2018; 276: 67-73
- [AAA] Li X, Zhao G, Zhang J, Duan Z, Xin S. Prevalence and trends of the abdominal aortic aneurysms epidemic in general population--a meta-analysis. PLoS One. 2013 Dec 2;8(12):e81260. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0081260.
- [AAA] Li W, et al. Predictors Associated With Increased Prevalence of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm in Chinese Patients with Atherosclerotic Risk Factors. Eur J VascEndovasc Surg. 2017 Jul;54(1):43-49. doi: 10.1016/j.ejvs.2017.04.004.
- [Cancer] Ferlay J, Colombet M, Soerjomataram I et al. Global and Regional Estimates of the Incidence and Mortality for 38 Cancers: GLOBOCAN 2018. Lyon: International Agency for Research on Cancer/World Health Organization; 2018
- [Multi] RP Kaur, GF Ho, et al. The elephant in the room- Universal coverage for Costly treatments in an upper middle income country. Preprint at BioRxivdoi: https://doi.org/10.1101/214296(2017)